Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Cultures

School of Media and Communication


Professor Ann Macintosh

Emeritus Professor of Digital Governance

BSc (St Andrews), Hon PhD (Örebro University, Sweden)


Ann Macintosh is Emeritus Professor of Digital Governance at the University of Leeds. Ann joined the University in 2007 to establish and co-direct the Centre for Digital Citizenship in the Institute of Communications Studies at the University. Her internationally funded research is focused on the use of digital technologies to facilitate political communication and support the democratic process.

In 1999, Ann founded the International Teledemocracy Centre (ITC) at Edinburgh Napier University, where she was Professor of Electronic Governance until 2007.  Her work, at both Leeds and Edinburgh Napier, has influenced research and policy-making in the UK, Europe and elsewhere. She has been an advisor to a number of national and regional governments, including the German Bundestag, the Canadian government, the state legislature of Queensland and the Scottish Government. She has also acted as a specialist advisor for the OECD, the Council for Europe and the Commonwealth Secretariat.

From 1980 to 1999, Ann held various posts at the University of Edinburgh and was, finally, Knowledge Systems Director at the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute (AIAI). While at the university Ann was an active committee member of the BCS Special Interest Group on Knowledge-Based Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence for which she was awarded honorary life membership in 2006.

Ann is a Fellow of the British Computer Society and a Chartered Engineer. In 2009, she was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Örebro University in Sweden for recognition of her work in eParticipation, in particular the interplay between humans, technology and governance.

Research Interests

Ann’s research in digital governance is both applied and conceptual; the aim is not simply to develop applications using ICT, but to understand their role in the complex structures that represent both global and local level governance.

Her research falls into two main areas. The first concerns the societal effect of technology on governance processes and the development of an evaluation framework for eParticipation. This area of her research has provided high-level insights into the mechanisms that need to be built into future online participation systems to appreciate how, where and why people use them.

The second concerns online deliberation and argument visualisation with the aim to support citizen engagement in policy making and facilitate the understanding of complex policy-related information. Her current research on argumentation visualization provides an orderly representation of the consultation debate and documentation that supports government policy-making. The European Commission project, IMPACT: “Integrated Method for Policy making using Argument modelling and Computer assisted Text analysis” is underpinning this work.




  • Loukis E; Macintosh A; Charalabidis Y (eds.) (2012) e-Participation in Southern Europe and the Balkans. London: Routledge.

  • Chen H; Brandt L; Dawes S; Traünmuller R; Gregg V; Hovy E; Macintosh A; Larson CA (eds.) (2007) Digital Government: eGovernment Research, Case Studies, and Implementation. Springer.

Journal articles

  • Tambouris E, Macintosh A, Smith SO, Panopoulou E, Tarabanis K, Millard J (2012) “Understanding eParticipation State of Play in Europe”, Information Systems Management. 29.4: 321-330.
    DOI: 10.1080/10580530.2012.716994

  • Tambouris E, Macintosh A, De Bruijn H (2011) “Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Preface”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). 6847 LNCS

  • Loukis E, Macintosh A, Charalabidis Y (2011) “Editorial”, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies. 13.1: 1-12.
    DOI: 10.1080/19448953.2011.550814

  • Loukis E, Macintosh A, Charalabidis Y (2011) “Editorial”, J BALKAN NEAR E STUD. 13.1: 1-12.
    DOI: 10.1080/19448953.2011.550814

  • Smith S, Macintosh AL, Millard J (2011) “A three-layered framework for evaluating e-participation”, International Journal of Electronic Governance. 4.4: 304-321.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJEG.2011.046013

  • Macintosh A (2009) “Moving Toward "Intelligent" Policy Development?”, IEEE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS. 24.5: 79-82.
    DOI: 10.1109/MIS.2009.91

  • Macintosh A, Gordon T, Renton A (2009) “Providing Argument Support for EParticipation”, Journal of Information Technology & Politics. 6.1: 43-59.
    DOI: 10.1080/19331680802662113

  • MacIntosh A (2008) “The emergence of digital governance”, Significance. 5.4: 176-178.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-9713.2008.00325.x

  • Xenakis A, MacIntosh A (2008) “A framework for the analysis of procedural security of the e-electoral process”, International Journal of Public Administration. 31.7: 711-729.
    DOI: 10.1080/01900690701690759

  • Xenakis A, Macintosh A (2008) “A Framework for the Analysis of Procedural Security of the e-Electoral Process”, International Journal of Public Administration. 31.8: 1-15. (Accepted)

  • Macintosh A, Whyte A (2008) “Towards an Evaluation Framework for eParticipation”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy. : 1-10.
    DOI: 10.1108/17506160810862928, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/3742/

  • Renton A, Macintosh A (2007) “Computer-Supported Argument Maps as a Policy Memory”, The Information Society. 23.2: 125-133.
    DOI: 10.1080/01972240701209300, Repository URL: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/3744/

  • Elliman T, Macintosh A, Irani Z (2007) “A model Building Tool to support Group Deliberation (eDelib)”, International Journal of Cases on Electronic Commerce. 3.3: 33-44.

  • Xenakis A, Macintosh A (2007) “A Methodology for the redesign of the electoral process to an e-electoral process”, International Journal of Electronic Governance.. 1.1: 4-16.

  • Whyte A, Macintosh A (2003) “Representational politics in virtual urban places”, Environment and Planning A. 35.9: 1607-1627.
    DOI: 10.1068/a34237

  • Macintosh A, Robson E, Smith E, Whyte A (2003) “Electronic Democracy and Young People”, Social Science Computer Review. 21.1: 43-54.
    DOI: 10.1177/0894439302238970

  • Whyte A, Macintosh A (2003) “Analysis and Evaluation of e-consultations”, e-Service Journal. 2.1: 10-18.

  • Adams N, Fraser J, Macintosh A, McKay-Hubbard A (2002) “Towards an Ontology for Electronic Transaction Services”, International Journal of Intelligent Systems in Accounting, Finance & Management. 11: 173-181.

  • Macintosh A, Malina A, Whyte A (2002) “Designing e-democracy for Scotland”, Communications: The European Journal of Communications. 27: 261-278.

  • Whyte A, Macintosh A (2001) “Transparency and Teledemocracy: Issues from an 'E-Consultation'”, Journal of Information Science. 27.4: 187-198.


  • Macintosh A (2007) “eParticipation and eDemocracy Research in Europe”, In: Chen; H; Brandt; L; Gregg; V; Traünmuller R; Dawes; S; Hovy (eds.) Digital Government: eGovernment Research, Case Studies, and Implementation. USA: Springer. 85-102

  • Macintosh A, Adams N, Whyte A, Johnston J (2007) “ePetitioning in the Scottish Parliament”, In: Chen; H; Brandt; L; Gregg; V; Traünmuller R; Dawes; S; Hovy (eds.) Digital Government: eGovernment Research, Case Studies, and Implementation. USA: Springer. 487-501

  • Malina A, Macintosh A (2003) “Bridging the Digital Divide: Supporting e-democracy”, In: Malkia M; Anttiroiko A-V; Savolainen R (eds.) eTransformation in Governance – new directions in Government and Politics. Idea Group. 255-271

  • Macintosh AL (2003) “Using information and communication technologies to enhance citizen engagement in the policy proces”, In: Caddy J; Vergez C (eds.) Promises and Problems of E-Democracy: Challenges of online citizen engagement. Paris, France: OECD. 19-142

  • Macintosh A, Davenport E, Malina A, Whyte A (2002) “Technology to Support Participatory Democracy”, In: Grönlund Å (eds.) Electronic Government: Design, Applications, and Management. Idea Group Publishing. 226-248

  • Macintosh A, Malina A (2002) “Digital Democracy through Electronic Petitioning”, In: McIver W; Elmagarmid AK (eds.) Advances in Digital Government: Technology, Human Factors, and Policy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 137-148

Conference papers

  • Benn N, Macintosh AL (2012) PolicyCommons – Visualizing Arguments in Policy Consultation. ePart 2012 Proceedings: Fourth IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2012 Germany: Springer-Verlag. LINCS 7444: 61-72.
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-33250-0_6

  • Benn N, Macintosh AL (2012) Making Sense of Macro- and Micro-Argumentation in Policy-Deliberation: Visualisation Techniques and Representation Formats. COMMA 2012 Proceedings: Computational Models of Argument - Proceedings of COMMA 2012. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications Series Amsterdam: IOS Press. 245: 71-82.

  • Benn N, Macintosh AL (2011) Argument Visualization for eParticipation: Towards a Research Agenda and Prototype Tool. Third IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2011 Proceedings: Electronic Participation: Proceedings of Third IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2011 Germany: Springer-Verlag. LNCS 6847: 60-73.

  • Macintosh A, Coleman S, Schneeberger A (2009) eParticipation: The Research Gaps. Proceedings: ELECTRONIC PARTICIPATION, PROCEEDINGS 5694: 1-11.

  • Whyte A, Xenakis A, Puiggali P, Macintosh A (2007) Mobile Services for Parliamentarians: Drivers & Expectations. Sixth International EGOV Conference Proceedings: Proceedings of the Electronic Government: Communications of the Sixth International EGOV Conference : 3-6.

Research Projects & Grants

Funded Research Projects since 2007:

  • 2010-2012 “IMPACT: Integrated Method for Policy making using Argument modelling and Computer assisted Text analysis” European Commission(FP7 247228). The The other partners are: Fraunhofer (lead partner), University of Amsterdam, University of Liverpool, and two companies specialising in user interface design (User Interface Design GMBH) and online consultations (Zebralog GmbH & Co KG).
  • 2008-2009 “Study and supply of services on the development of eParticipation in the EU” (Contract number 30-CE-0132840/00-38). The core consortium consisted of three partners, on equal standing, the Danish Technological Institute as project co-ordinator, the University of Macedonia (Greece) and Leeds.
  • 2006-2008 “DEMO-Net – Network of Excellence on eParticipation”: European Commission (FP6-2004-027219).

Research Centres & Groups

Ann co-founded (with Professor Stephen Coleman) the Centre for Digital Citizenship, an interdisciplinary research centre which conducts research into the changing nature of citizenship and governance in a networked society.

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